Renewable Resources and Renewable Energy: A Global Challenge, Second Edition


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Wind power , concentrated solar power CSP , biomass , photovoltaic systems exceeding 1 MW p , hydropower not exceeding 30 MW as well as biomass systems are also incentivized through an accelerated depreciation with the following schedule:. Solar energy is light and heat that is radiated from the Sun. Solar energy is a low-cost source of energy compared to traditional non-renewable energy resources in South Africa.

The introduction of solar power plants has stimulated the economy and created jobs within the country. Wind power is the use of wind turbines to mechanically power the generation of electric power. Levels of wind will differentiate depending on factors such as terrain, bodies of water and vegetative cover. South Africa's extensive coastline and geographical terrain including lowlands and high veld escarpment, provide wind energy that can be extracted and generated into off-the-shelf technology. The production of wind energy does not produce greenhouse gases and is an alternative to burning fossil fuels.

Hydropower , or hydroelectric power, is energy that is captured from flowing water and turned into electricity. When the water is released from the reservoir, it flows through a turbine which generates electricity. Biomass is physical biological material that comes from living or recently living organisms.

It comes from plants or materials that are derived from plants which are called lignocellulosic biomass. Animal matter and plant matter can also be converted into forms of biofuel. Geothermal energy is generated from heat that is stored in the Earth. The geothermal energy is that is generated from the Earth's crust is the original formation of the planet and from radioactive decay of material. The South African energy sector is dominated by the company Eskom. Due to their large presence in the non-renewable energy sector, there are independent power producers IPP who are capable of providing renewable energy sources.

By the end of Mulilo will have MW for wind power contributions. South Africa is one of the most popular countries for investment in renewable energy. The barriers of renewable energy in the country include lack of political stability and capacity, marginalization, corruption, poverty, and environmental degradation. A financial barrier exists in the renewable energy sector in South Africa. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Solar power in South Africa. Renewable energy portal South Africa portal.

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. September 24, Retrieved March 9, Energy Policy.

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Retrieved March 30, Renewable Energy. South African Institute of Tax Professionals. Retrieved August 31, South African Revenue Service. Grid Energy Solutions. October 25, Retrieved March 21, Retrieved March 29, South Africa.

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You can differ the diameter of the fine pulled tip by altering the speed of pulling. You would need a fine diameter tip if you are trying to separate very small algae, but a bigger diameter tip is necessary for large cells. Addition of antibiotics to the growth medium is necessary to prevent growth of cyanobacteria and other bacteria, while addition of germanium dioxide will inhibit diatoms growth. Treatment of culture, isolated algae, by an extensive washing procedure via one or more antibiotics is called axenic culture.

Resistant stages such as zygotes or akinetes can be treated with bleach to kill epiphytes, and then planted on agar for germination. Two basic alternatives for microalgae cultivation exist and their relative merits are the basis of ongoing debate. Microalgae cultivation using sunlight energy can be carried out in open ponds, covered ponds or closed photobioreactors, based on tubular, flat plate or other designs [ 38 ]. Algae houses are utilizing numerous variance methods to grow the algae, involving covered ponds, open ponds, bioreactors and raceways.

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Algae grow normally in brackish, fresh or salt water centered on the algae species. An algal biofuels house must assess the cost and accessibility of water at the site of the production capacity. Water evaporation is the main problem, may be depending on the climate or whether of the system that used for growth of the algae open or closed. Each system has benefits and drawbacks with respect to optimal growth conditions. Advantages and disadvantages of open pond and closed systems which are used for algal growth.

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The microalgae transferred to isolated photobioreactor for hydrogen creation, where the algae will transform solar energy into hydrogen gas using a biophotolytic procedure under sulfur deficiency. After the hydrogen yields stage, the algal biomass will be gathered and used for various purposes: the algae can be utilized immediately as a food for human or as animal feed or in aquaculture. After nutrient control, algal biomass can hold big quantities of important biomolecules, which will be removed for industrial trade. However, these substances generally contain few percent of the biomass, leaving the common of the fixed carbone dioxide in the residual biomass.


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The remaining algal biomass from different method steps can be utilized either as a fertilizer for agriculture in which case the fixed carbon will be retained for some years, or for storing of the fixed carbone dioxide by industrial uses like manufacture of plastics. Remaining biomass can also be utilized as an energy transporter by removal of biodiesel through the direct conversion of the biomass to other energy transporters by biological or thermochemical procedures [ 39 ]. Fixation of carbone dioxide in photobioreactors, utilizing microalgae to convert carbon dioxide and solar energy into algal biomass through photosynthesis process.

Photobioreactors, the closed systems are much more expensive than ponds. Vertical tubes are the most popular system due to their relatively easy maintenance, high surface to volume ratio and low cost [ 40 ]. Between the advantages of utilizing photobioreactors are resistance to infection with uninhabited algae types and the possibility of simply controlling different factors, including temperature, light intensity and pH. The PBR can be located outdoors or indoors using artificial light or sunlight or a mixture of both.

A recent study showed that different wavelengths may have a significant influence on biomass and lipid productivity, as well as on the lipid profile [ 41 ]. Open ponds can be considered a cheap and easy to build, as extended as the area is relatively flat. Cultivation can be prepared immediately above the soil and some simple surface covering for reducing water loss due to seepage, and the other enhancements can be prepared to increase solar energy capture, and reduce the contamination process.

Open-pond systems for the most part have been given up for the cultivation of algae with high-oil content [ 43 ]. Open systems using a monoculture are vulnerable to viral infection. However, such open ponds also suffer from various limitations, including more rapid than closed systems biological invasions by other algae, algae grazers, fungi, amoeba, etc. It became a main problem, limiting its latter problem is offered. Wastewaters and marine waters can be used as environment and considered a good match for this system due to the water sustainability issues that would prevent large open-pond cultivation from using potable water and the cost of this operation is relatively low.

Therefore, this system is able to generate the biomass with a good price [ 44 ]. In general, open ponds constitute the cheapest method of producing algae in large quantities [ 45 ]. Nutrients such as phosphorus P , potassium K and nitrogen N are vital for microalgae growth and are necessary quantities of fertilizer. Iron and silica, in addition to many trace elements, which considered essential marine nutrients, the lack of one can limit the growth of microorganism.

A suitable nutrient source for algae is from the sewage wastewater treatment, agricultural, flood plain run-off, all presently major pollutants. However, this wastewater cannot feed algae immediately, but the first process through anaerobic digestion by bacteria. If wastewater is not processed before it reaches the algae, it will possibly kill much of the desired algae strain.

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Anaerobic digestion of wastewater produces a mixture of methane, carbon dioxide and organic fertilizer. Since the organic fertilizer that comes out of a digester is liquid, and approximately suitable for algae growth, it must first be cleaned and sterilized [ 1 ]. One method to increase productivity is to increase the concentration of carbon dioxide [ 44 , 46 ].

Indeed, the enzyme responsible for CO 2 fixation ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase , has a little affinity for CO 2 and also functions as an oxidase of 1,5-bisphosphate, act with oxygen.

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So, oxygen is a competitive inhibitor with CO 2 and subsequently the atmospheric concentration of CO 2 is amount lower than that of oxygen, which can has a major effect. Assessment of this problem has been achieved by the improvement of carbon concentration mechanisms, where the cell locally induces the CO 2 concentration around the Rubisco enzyme to confirm its function in CO 2 fixation [ 47 ].

So this mechanism is common between the algae and demonstrates the benefits of increasing of the CO 2 concentration in mass cultures. Actually, dispersing CO 2 into the culture medium is known to raise its cellular density and two different methods are often reported, the use of CO 2 to adjust pH and CO 2 enrichment as a way to moderate flue gas [ 48 ].

Of course any feedstock used in large-scale production will play an important role on the price and CO 2 is not an exception. In common logic, production of biodiesel from microalgae is in fact likes to the production of first-generation biodiesel. The biomass created is then cropped.

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The lipids are removed and then treated via transesterification into fatty acid methyl ester, generally named biodiesel. Though, dissimilar oil seed plants, cropping microalgal cells can demonstrate to be relatively challenging. The small cells moving in water cannot be accessed as simply as microscopic organism, and subsequently oil extraction becomes more complex than the traditional process used for oil seeds in development centuries.

Many standard techniques have been evaluated for use in mass algal cultivation and their limitations are reviewed in detail elsewhere [ 49 ]. Thus, harvesting can be done at once or divided into different steps, each one varying depending upon the desired final total solids concentration.

Of course, selection of crop process will differ according to the critical use of the biomass.


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  4. In this situation, the high value of the product will contribute in the high cost and energy power of the method. Harvesting methods are one of the major problem in developing a possible biodiesel from microalgae production process is how to successfully harvest the biomass in a cost-effective way [ 50 ].

    Renewable Resources and Renewable Energy: A Global Challenge, Second Edition Renewable Resources and Renewable Energy: A Global Challenge, Second Edition
    Renewable Resources and Renewable Energy: A Global Challenge, Second Edition Renewable Resources and Renewable Energy: A Global Challenge, Second Edition
    Renewable Resources and Renewable Energy: A Global Challenge, Second Edition Renewable Resources and Renewable Energy: A Global Challenge, Second Edition
    Renewable Resources and Renewable Energy: A Global Challenge, Second Edition Renewable Resources and Renewable Energy: A Global Challenge, Second Edition
    Renewable Resources and Renewable Energy: A Global Challenge, Second Edition Renewable Resources and Renewable Energy: A Global Challenge, Second Edition
    Renewable Resources and Renewable Energy: A Global Challenge, Second Edition Renewable Resources and Renewable Energy: A Global Challenge, Second Edition
    Renewable Resources and Renewable Energy: A Global Challenge, Second Edition Renewable Resources and Renewable Energy: A Global Challenge, Second Edition
    Renewable Resources and Renewable Energy: A Global Challenge, Second Edition Renewable Resources and Renewable Energy: A Global Challenge, Second Edition

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