James was given a list of demands by the opposing factions and whilst there was no suggestion at this time that a new English version of Bible should be created there was a great pressure on him to do something. It was on 18 January that James summoned a collection of scholars and churchman to attend a conference at Hampton Court, where he was based to avoid the plague that had taken hold of London. A notable attendee on behalf of the Bishops was Richard Bancroft, Bishop of London and future Archbishop of Canterbury, who presided over the conference.
As a leading member of the Puritan delegation, John Reynolds was invited to the conference because of his academic excellence and politically and ecclesiastically moderate views. The three day conference was billed as a discussion on the provision of preachers in Ireland, whether ecclesiastical courts could excommunicate people from church and a consideration of the Puritan objections to readings and prayers in the Bible.
James was keen to let both parties know that he wished to seek a continuity of what had gone before and was not looking for change but confirmation of what has been settled already. On the second day, Reynolds accidently angered the King by suggesting a model of the church to include the bishop and congregation working together in a presbytery. Having faced numerous troubles with the Scottish Presbyterians James was unhappy with the ill thought out reference.
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Whilst James was in agreement with the principles of the Geneva translation, he was very much opposed to its annotation, in particular the marginal note in the first chapter of the book of Exodus which questioned the authority of the King. It was at this stage that James suggested a new translation as a compromise. Moses and Aaron flank the central text.
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In the four corners sit Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, authors of the four gospels, with their symbolic animals. A committee of 54 translators and revisers made up of the most learned men in the nation was introduced to complete the translation and was made up of 6 committees, called companies.
Three companies were responsible for the Old Testament, two for the New Testament and one for the Apocrypha , the books that the Protestant Christian Church considered useful but not divinely inspired. James and Bancroft drew up very specific rules for the translators, which included the process of exchanging drafts which were then subject to close scrutiny and the exclusion of the marginal notes which had made the Geneva translation so problematic.
The King, Bishops and Puritans all left the conference happy that their needs or at least some of them had been met. Whilst the Puritans had lost most of their arguments about the ceremonial aspect of the Church of England service they had gained a new translation of the Bible so were reasonably happy.
The most striking characteristic of the translation is its simplicity. The Bible was written with resonance and uplifting rhythms. It was easy to remember with the familiar structure of 10 syllables and an iambic rhythm which was written to be spoken, much like Shakespeare and Milton. It was not just the influence of the prose and language; the actual stories themselves were hugely influential on eighteenth and nineteenth century writers.
However, the King James Bible did not only influence UK culture, but went on to have a worldwide presence.
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Their plan was to set up a new civilisation more in-keeping with their Puritan ideals. The growth of the British Empire was also a great mechanism for spreading the English language and the King James Bible was always stowed aboard the great merchant navy ships, becoming the first English book that many would encounter worldwide. The East India Company alone saw it travel to India and to the colonies in Africa, Australia and New Zealand; another reason why English is now a dominant world language.
English Catholics abroad followed up with the Rheims-Douai Bible. The bishops, representing the status quo of the Anglican hierarchy, also had a word in the royal ear, urging James to stand firm on their behalf. In fact, James was no lover of Puritanism, and he certainly believed in the divine right of kings. He disliked violent factionalism—his reign in Scotland since had been troubled by the need to appease strong Presbyterian currents. So he agreed to hold a conference at Hampton Court Palace, in January , at which Puritan representatives and the bishops could air their grievances.
It was a pretty sour meeting, at which the King essentially came down on the side of the bishops, including a rejection of Puritan requests for the Geneva Bible to be adopted as the standard text across England. The translating committee of this new Bible was to be split into two Westminster Companies, two Cambridge Companies and two Oxford Companies. The final numbers varied slightly, but each company was responsible for different sections of the Bible.
Little wonder it would take seven years. While the idea was to be inclusive, all the checks and balances in place to review the end work make it clear that nothing too contentious would be allowed. Cambridge, let it be remembered, was a seedbed of English Puritanism; Oxford, though notorious earlier on for housing Lollard followers of Wycliffe, was now the more orthodox and traditional of the two universities.
Many of the London lot were alumni or connected with Oxbridge.itlauto.com/wp-includes/spy/315-avis-mouchard.php
The King James Bible: Still The Word After 400 Years
A few of the otherwise forgotten names involved gives a flavor: Lancelot Andrewes, Cambridge educated, brilliant and politically astute was director of The First Westminster Company that met in the Jerusalem Chamber of the Abbey. His career embraced persecution of Separatists and the acquisition of plum posts like dean of Westminster. There were no Puritans in The First Westminster Company, rather folks like racy Richard Thomson, the witty translator of Martial, and John Layfield, a Greek scholar from Trinity Cambridge, who was also an explorer and travel writer witness his generous account of the English arrival in the New World.
William Branthwaite, a safe government candidate and founding fellow of Emmanuel College under Chaderton, was put into The Second Cambridge Company to replace a man suspected of Catholicism. To these, several dozen learned scholars and colorful characters could be added, though infuriatingly little is known of the details of their meetings.
The overall effect is one of poetic intensity and words freighted with meaning though curiously the scholars transformed the poetry of, say, Psalms into prose. Moreover, the Translators read aloud to each other, encouraging a sonority and musicality in their handiwork. There is no doubt that the efforts of those who went before, in particular Tyndale, influenced the KJV, but the latter combines and surpasses them in luscious literary terms. Some folk will always prefer the straight-talking, accessible prose of more modern Bible versions; others hear in the KJV not simply antique expressions, but the richer sounds of something extraordinary, a hallowed eternal mystery.
The King James Bible became a roaring success and would travel around the world with English colonists; its Translators were largely forgotten, but the life and immediacy of their work lived on.
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Can Hatfield House, then, be read as a companion to the Bible whose genesis is so close to its own? Toggle navigation. About British Heritage Magazine Manage your subscription. Subscribe to our newsletter.
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