Not all verbs formed from hin- and her- compounds are lexical.
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Some examples of hin- and her- compounds are:. Da- compounds are also adverbs, corresponding to "there-" compounds in English. They replace specific prepositional objects. Although are used principally in legal texts and therefore sound formal in English, they are often employed in written and spoken German and are convenient replacements for long and complicated prepositional phrases.
Their comprehension and active use are essential in German. Da- compounds are formed by adding da- before the preposition, with an "r" inserted before prepositions starting with a vowel. There are exceptions to this, and da- compounds are given a fuller treatment in the chapter on prepositions. Hier- and dort- compounds also exist in German, though they are used less frequently. As in English, they are considered formal, and are used primarily in academic and legal texts. They are best memorized as vocabulary.
A noun is a word that can be used to refer to a person, place, thing, quality, or idea, that is, a part of speech.
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It can serve as the subject or object of a verb. For example, a table ein Tisch , eine Tafel or a computer ein Computer.
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What makes nouns in German special is that they must start with a capital letter in the written language. German, unlike English, has more than one way to make nouns plural, and plural form, like gender, must be memorized with every noun. There are twelve different ways to form plurals in German. They are formed by affixes at the end of the word, and the umlaut of the vowel of the stem.
When German nouns are used in the plural, their gender becomes irrelevant. The plural can almost be thought of as a gender on its own. In the plural, the definite article is always "die" when using the nominative and accusative cases. When using the dative case, "den" is the definite article of all plurals.
All plurals not ending in -n or -s affix an -n. I saw the old men as they played chess. I played chess with the old men.
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The old men's chess game was not very exciting. Although gender and plural form are often arbitrary, there exist certain suffixes whose gender and plural form are regular. They are mainly feminine. Many masculine nouns are formed by verbal stems without a suffix.
Many of these receive an umlaut in their plural form. German, like many other languages, gives each noun a gender: Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter.
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Plural nouns also act differently not only with the verb of the sentence, but the article preceding it. However, not all German Nouns are randomly allocated a gender. The following notes will apply to most nouns but not all. This is derived from the diminutive form of Maid old, rarely used - Maidchen. There are far more masculine nouns than of either of the other genders. The masculine nominative definite article is der. The feminine Gender article is die. It is used in the nominative and accusative singular case.
It is also used to indicate nominative and accusative plural for nouns of any gender. The definite article of neuter countries is only used when there is an adjective, e.
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The definite article of masculine and feminine countries is always used, e. As most German articles can not be attributed to certain rule, it is best to always learn the article when learning the noun. You may think of the article as necessary information belonging to every noun. You avoid a lot of looking-up-time that way. Most dictionaries do not give the article.
Instead, you find different sets of abbreviations which tell you to which class the noun in question belongs. Note: The possessive is not a case of the personal pronoun; rather, it's a pronoun itself. This table shows the possessive pronoun's stem, which is declined as an ein- word that is, like the indefinite article "ein".
The genitive case indicates possession or association, and is equivalent to, and replaces, the English word "of". Strict replacement of the genitive case with the word "of" maintains the word-order of the German nominal phrase: possessed - possessor in genitive.
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The genitive case also replaces "'s" in English, though reversing the word order possessed then possessor, vs. English: possessor then possessed. German itself also uses an "s" though without the apostrophe to indicate possession, in the same word order as English. It is used mainly with proper nouns, such as "Goethes Heimat", as well as for compounding words.
Standard genitive constructions are used with nouns and modifiers of nouns such as articles and adjectives, and the inflection they receive implies possession. The first noun may be in any case and may occur in any part of the sentence; the second noun, which possesses the first noun, immediately follows the first noun, and is in the genitive case.
The noun in the genitive case need not have any modifiers - e. Proper treatment of the genitive case, including all of the declensions, is found in another part of this book. German pronouns have genitive forms, but they are used only rarely nowadays, mostly in archaic or formal German. In many cases, a preposition can be added to allow a different case to be used.
The possessive pronouns mein-, dein-, unser-, etc. Alternatively, one could think of possessive pronouns, for example, "mein-", as replacing the phrase, "of me". Directly translated, "mein-" means "my" in English. The car belongs to the friend, and the friend belongs to "him". For illustrative purposes, one could conceivably rewrite the prepositional phrase as "without the car accusative case of the friend of him".
German's rendering is far less awkward. Despite the difficulty many people have in learning German declensions, case endings in German correspond to each other to a considerable degree.fuckcoinye.com/4623.php
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Specifically, the pronouns bear an obvious resemblance to their parent direct articles. Learning the corresponding third-person declensions side by side allows some people to comprehend the declension pattern more easily. As discussed above, possessive pronouns replace the genitive case for pronouns. In this table, they will be placed where the genitive case is, so that their similarities to other parts of speech that actually are in the genitive case can become clear.
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